To be able to communicate in English well, you need to master grammar. In which, Gerund and Infinitive is an important grammar point you need to know when learning English communication.
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So what are Gerunds and Infinitives? What are the usage rules? Let webgiaidap.com help you!
What are Gerunds?
Gerunds are words that are structured like a verb, but function as a noun. A gerund is a verb that adds “ing” to make it a noun.
How to generate gerunds:
Add -ing after verbs to make present participle
Example: play > playing, cry > crying, bark > barking
For verbs ending in “e”, remove the “e” at the end and add “ing”.
Example: slide > sliding, ride > riding
For verbs ending in “ie”, change “ie” to “y” and add the ending “ing”.
Example: die > dying, tie > tying
For verbs whose last syllable ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant and the last syllable is stressed, double the last letter and add “ing”.
For example: beg > begging, begin > beginning. However: enter > entering (last syllable is not stressed)
Rules for using Gerund
1. Gerunds at the beginning of a sentence when being the subject of a sentence:
Example: Jogging is a hobby of mine.
2. Gerunds can make an object after a verb:
Example: Daniel quit smoking a year ago.
3. Gerunds can be used as an object after a preposition:
Example: I look forward to helping you paint the house.
4. Some verbs and phrasal verbs come right after the gerund:
Example: Paul avoids using chemicals on the vegetables he grows.
5. Some verbs, whether followed by a gerund or an infinitive, do not change the meaning of the sentence:
Example: Some people prefer getting up early in the morning.
Some people prefer to get up early in the morning
6. Conversely, some gerund or infinitive following the verb will change the meaning of the sentence:
Example: He remembered sending the fax. (He recalls the act of sending a fax.)
He remembered to send the fax. (He remembered the fax and sent it.)
What is Infinitive?
Infinitives are verbs with the most basic structure. Infinitive verbs are divided into two types: verbs followed by “to”, and verbs without “to”. For example: to buy, to work.
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Rules for using Infinitive
1. Infinitives can be used as an object after a verb:
Example: Jim always forgets to eat.
2. Infinitives as the subject at the beginning of a sentence:
Example: To travel around the world requires a lot of time and money.
3. Infinitives can be used as adverbs of verbs:
Example: You promised to buy me a diamond ring.
4. Infinitives can be used as an adjective to complement a noun:
Example: Tara has the ability to succeed.
5. Infinitives can come right after a verb:
Example: Do you want to call your family now?
6. Some verbs are followed by a noun or pronoun and then an infinitive:
Example: I convinced Catherine to become vegetarian.
He advised me to sell all my shares of stock.
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7. Some verbs, whether followed by an infinitive or a gerund, do not change the meaning of the sentence:
Example: Will you continue working after you give birth?
Will you continue to work after you give birth?
8. Conversely, an infinitive or a gerund following the verb will change the meaning of the sentence:
Example: He stopped drinking coffee. (He will never drink coffee again.)
He stopped to drink coffee. (He stopped what he was doing to drink some coffee.)
Verbs that go only with Gerund:
Be used to
Get used to
It’s no use
Look forward to
The verbs that go with both the Gerund and the Infinitive do not change the meaning of the sentence:
Verbs that come with Gerund and Infinitive change the meaning of the sentence:
Verbs that go only with Infinitives:
Some verbs are followed by a noun or a pronoun and then an infinitive:
Here’s everything you need to know about Gerunds and Infinitives and the rules for using them. Mastering these rules will help you to be able to communicate in English accurately, without making grammatical mistakes.