The idea of a Charter school (roughly translated as Charter school or Authorized school) was first introduced by Professor Dr. Ray Budde (1923-2005) at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in the 70s. Therefore, Budde is considered a man. beginning of the education reform movement at that time. Later in 1988, this proposal was accepted by Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers, when he called for reform of the public school system by establishing “specially authorized schools” distinctive” or “field (of choice)”.
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At first, they envisioned the ideal model of the Charter school as a kind of public school that was allowed to be autonomous in terms of regulations and finances by the government, with no tuition fees, no religious ties, and no selective students. ; operates similarly to a private school, independent of state education laws or local regulations and with greater responsibility for student achievement. Here “Take more responsibility” means that if students have poor academic performance, the school will be closed by the government. In the 1980s in Philadelphia, schools-within began to appear. -schools), known as “charters”, i.e. schools authorized by (government education agencies). This type of field works with relative success. Then some teachers in Minnesota also made efforts in the same direction. The first Charter School in the United States was born in 1991. It was St. Paul City Academy High School in Minnesota; Founded by two teachers, it mainly accepts students who are not allowed to attend public schools, aged 16-21. The school has 35 students. The school focuses on educating students with a sense of responsibility for life and the ability to solve problems. The school is equipped with modern teaching facilities, diverse educational content, creating an environment for students to develop healthy personality. The school’s achievements are outstanding, most of the students graduate and move on to the next grade. This experience fostered the reformist faction in the education sector, which in turn was supported by the state government; Therefore, many places are eager to open Charter schools, the enrollment area is expanded from kindergarten to primary and secondary schools, but mainly primary schools. Charter schools boldly reform the management mechanism, the mode of use of people, modify the curriculum, modify the teaching methods, apply small classes, increase tutoring for special students, modernize teaching equipment. In 1991 Minnesota became the first state to pass a Charter School Act; then to California. As of 2008, 40 states and the District of Columbia have enacted Charter School Laws; The United States has more than 4,600 Charter schools with a total of more than 1.4 million students. It is also important to note that 11% of Charter schools have closed for academic, financial, administrative reasons and sometimes due to local interference. Background of the birth of the Charity School
From the 1980s onwards, American public opinion became more and more concerned about defects in the general education industry. First of all, the educational system is rigid, not paying attention to the concerns of students, not attaching importance to the ideas of education reform, and there is no competition between schools, which leads to the quality of education. decline, the students’ reading, writing and calculation ability are low. The root cause is that the public high school and elementary school system in the US is completely managed by the local government education agency, in many ways schools lack the necessary autonomy, are bound by the laws of the country. local government regulations. Second, educational inequality is becoming more and more serious. Private schools have higher quality than public schools, but due to expensive tuition fees, only children from well-to-do families can attend private schools; Children of poor families, people of color and ethnic minorities are usually only allowed to study in public schools near their homes by their parents. They cannot afford to go to private schools, even high-quality public schools, but are far from home. Students with poor academic ability, or naughty, spoiled students are not paid attention with private tutoring and help. In short, children of disadvantaged populations do not enjoy the same education as other populations. Under such circumstances, public opinion demands more autonomy for high schools. On the other hand, the market movement Education marketization is also a factor promoting the birth of charter schools… The educational marketization movement started with some economists advocating to introduce the competition mechanism in economic activities into the universal school system. to activate the sclerosis mechanism of this system. The winner of the 1976 Nobel Prize in economics, Milton Friedman (American) first suggested that public service industries such as education and welfare should apply the market mechanism. In the article “The effect of government in education”, he wrote: because the government has a monopoly on education for a long time, there is a lack of necessary competition among schools, and educational performance is getting lower and lower. Although the government should fund education and take responsibility accordingly, individuals or organizations outside the government can also open schools (public and private) to conduct competition, to improve the quality of education, while Because many students have the right to choose schools, it is possible to increase equity in education. The world-famous economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek (Austria), winner of the 1974 Nobel Prize in economics also said that the market is the basis and basis of educational activities, so the competition mechanism should be introduced into the field. education. That thought had a strong influence on Americans. It can be said that charter schools are a form of government and market that jointly shoulder the responsibility of education, an educational service market managed by the government. The market mechanism helps schools break out of the old bureaucratic education model given by the State monopoly. Government supportThe US government played an important role in sponsoring the establishment of the Charter School. After the state of Minnesota enacted a law confirming the legal status of charter schools, President Clinton and Secretary of Education Riley enthusiastically supported the initiative, calling it the most vital element of the package. education reform. In his 1997 State of the Union Address, President Clinton proposed doubling funding to support the establishment of Charter schools to $100 million. As a result, in 1998, 1100 more Charter schools were established by teachers or students’ parents. The Clinton administration also approved the Public Charter Schools Program, which grants the states funding to develop this new type of school. In 2002, President Bush enacted the Law leaving no student behind (No. Child Left Behind Act, NCLB) states that public schools that do not meet state test standards for three consecutive years will be closed. These schools will be taken over by state government agencies, or by companies, teachers, parent groups, and even individuals to take the stand of Charter.
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Characteristic of Charismatic SchoolAny organization, union, collective or individual can apply to the local government’s education agency for permission to open a Charter school. If permitted, the institution or the person in charge of the school will sign an agreement with the education authority of the government, which specifies the specifics of the responsibilities of both parties. The applicant to open the school must be responsible before The government, specifically, must clearly state the educational goals and commit to achieving the set goals. The local government uses this agreement to monitor the school’s performance, if it finds that the school is not meeting the set goals, it has the right to suspend the agreement, stop funding and dissolve the school. a type of public school, that is, receiving educational funding from the State (ie the state government). Funding is allocated according to the actual number of students available, according to the same standards as all public schools. In the US, the state governments all set the standard of education funding that an average student receives in a year; This standard varies from state to state. In addition, the school can accept money or property donations from educational organizations, colleges-universities, companies, individuals… In principle, charter schools must accept all students who want Students must not apply for school, must not be selective about students, may not discriminate against students, may not collect tuition fees from students, may not teach religious content, and must ensure the quality of education as prescribed. Charter schools have more autonomy than regular public schools, such as autonomy in recruiting people, using funds, arranging curriculum, and educating students’ personality. Teachers are openly recruited, not forced to accept teachers assigned by government education agencies, so Charter schools can choose good teachers. Teachers sign contracts with the school, enjoy more ownership, such as participating in school management, in the School Board, there is necessarily a teacher representative. In general, Charter schools are different, so it is not possible in this article to provide a model for this type of school. Most charter schools have 200-300 students, some schools have up to several thousand students. Some integers are old public schools, some are new schools. There are also private schools that have difficulty in funding to convert to Charter schools. A school operator is usually a group of teachers, a group of parents, a company, a factory, or a university, or an individual. Some schools use conventional teaching methods, others use homeschooling and distance learning.
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Operational status of Charter schools and existing problemsCharter schools generally do well in terms of student achievement, parental satisfaction, and educational equity. In 2003, 73% of Charter schools achieved their goal of increasing the Academic Performance Index (API), while only 67% of public schools achieved that goal. Survey data of Charter schools in 35 states in 2007 shows that in 19 states, these schools have higher AYP (Academic Year Program) performance than public schools. A survey of parents of 100 charter schools in the state California in 2000 found that 66% of parents said “Very satisfied” with the school. Another survey showed that 70% of parents gave the highest rating (A) to the charter school their children attended. Many teachers and students of Charter schools think that the learning efficiency here is higher than that of ordinary public schools. The number of Charter schools is increasing day by day. For example, in 1997 there were 693 schools, in 2006 there were 3977 schools; the rate of increase in 2006 was 11%. The state of California in the 1993-1994 school year had 31 schools, in 2007 there were 621 schools with 220,000 students. Charter schools have made good contributions to improving educational equity. The survey showed that 53% of charter school students are from ethnic minorities, 54% are from poor families. For the 2004-2005 school year, 52% of eligible Charter School students received free or reduced price lunches. A 3-year survey in California found that Charter schools did a good job of improving API achievement for disadvantaged students. In other words, Charter schools have been of great help to students in need. The United States and some states have their own Charter school websites, for example http://www.uscharters chools.org. It should be noted that despite two decades of development, the idea of Charity School still faces many objections from many sides. Currently 10 states do not have Charter School Law, which means they do not recognize this type of school. The teachers’ union is clearly opposed. Opponents argue that Charter schools become the object of the market, operating in the nature of a business, under pressure from market forces, thus possibly making student learning impaired. interruption, loss of learning opportunities. Charter School is only a kind of semi-independent public school, with only autonomy in responsibility, but not in many aspects. Currently, the number of Charter schools in some states tends to decrease. New President Obama and new Education Secretary Arne Duncan strongly support the Charter School. Most recently, President Obama announced the organization of National Charter Schools Week from May 2 to 8, 2010. In a statement released on April 29, Mr. Obama said: ” The future of our country depends on the education we provide our sons and daughters, and Charter schools across America are working as educational laboratories. Ideas developed and tested by Charter schools have unleashed the potential of students from diverse backgrounds and are driving reform in many areas. During National Charter Schools Week, we recommit to supporting innovation in learning and teaching at quality Charter schools and ensuring all of our students have the opportunity to realize their Dreams. American dream…”.Reform of general education is an extremely arduous process; it touches the interests of most of the population and millions of teachers, so it’s hard for any reform ideas to reach a high consensus. Moreover, the budget for general education is very large, the reform needs to be very cautious and must be carried out in a way of experimenting step by step, by doing, learning from experience, and improving gradually. The process of birth and development of the Charity School in the US is no exception to that rule; The Charity School debate continues.