What is Etymology – Troubleinthepeace

Learning etymology is interesting, it gives us information about history, culture, as well as helps to understand more semantic roots. As a good example, the word compassion is a combination of the prefix com- and the word passion; com- is a Latin prefix, meaning “together”; passion if looked up etymologically, it comes from the Latin pati, meaning “suffering” (suffering). Thus, in order to have compassion, people need to go through suffering together.

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Language is what reflects the culture of a certain people, and over time, words gradually change in terms of morphology (morphology) and semantics (semantics) to suit each cultural situation. society. Therefore, finding the origin of words is also tracing the historical traces of the cultural development of a nation.

Ernest Klein also said in the Preface section of “A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language” <1>: “To know the origin of words is to know the cultural history of mankind.” Understanding the origin and history of words is the purpose of etymology. Brief history of EnglishSince this article is about the etymology of English, we will first briefly talk about the history of English. Today’s English is called Modern English, belonging to the Indo-European language family. ) <2>; in which there are contributions of two important language families: the first is the Italic language family, typically with Old Latin, and other languages ​​(belonging to the Romance language family, a subfamily of Italic) such as French and Italian. , Spain, Portugal and Romania; The second, and also the linguistic family that founded English, was Germanic (more precisely West Germanic) <3>, the ancestor of modern German. Around the 5th century AD, there were three strains. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes (from what is now Denmark and the north of Germany) crossed the North Sea to the island of present-day England. The modern English word comes from Engla-land (land of the Angles), and “English” is from Old English Englisc, which comes from the Latin name for the Angles Angli people. Before these Germanic people arrived, Britain belonged to the Celts, when the Germanic arrived they called the Celts wealas (meaning “foreigners”), and that is also the origin of the word Welsh (Welsh people). or Welsh language). And this group of Germanic peoples created a language called Old English. Around the 9th century (about 850 AD), the Vikings of the Norse race (in Scandinavia) crossed the sea to Great Britain, and bring their language into Old English; For example, the word “dream” is derived from the Old Norse word draumr. Effects from Old Norse (whose root is the North Germanic word <3>) may include the substitution of “sindon” for “are”, or the addition of “s” to the end of a third person verb. singular in present simple, etc. <4>In 1066, the French Normans invaded England, and opened a new era for English at that time: Middle English.

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This can be considered the most important historical event for English, when the Normans brought their French language, bringing newness and greatly enriching the English vocabulary at that time. For example, they replace “cw” with “qu” (queen for cwen), bring “gh” (instead of just “h”) to words like “night”, “enough”, etc. along with a series of Other French loanwords. <5>The Middle English period lasted until the middle of the 15th century, when English moved into the Modern English period. This period is further subdivided into two periods: Early Modern English lasting from the mid-15th to 18th centuries, and the Late Modern English period from the 18th century to the present. During both of these periods, English was heavily influenced by the European Renaissance, with the arrival of hundreds of Latin and Greek words such as area, crisis, maximum, poem, etc. Then came the influence of the Industrial Revolution, as well as the influence of the British empire’s takeover of ¼ of the Earth, leading to the appearance of more foreign words in the English vocabulary. Especially, during the period of time. During the Modern English period, a new form of English appeared that is very popular today, which is American English. It was the result of the British colonization of North America. One thing worth noting here: while the British homeland was being flooded with foreign languages, in North America the English of the colonists was less affected, so that English in Shakespeare’s time was seen as more similar to American English than to English in his native England. In general, the history of English can be summarized by the following diagram:



Source: internet

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