Early computers were built and developed that allowed only one program to be run at a time. Therefore, the running program has control over the whole system, as well as all the resources of the computer. Then appeared the system that allows many programs to run at the same time. This leads to the need to clearly define control rights as well as the allocation of system resources for running programs.
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Hence the concept of process. A process is the program being executed, and also an operating unit in modern computer systems.
The “jobs” that the operating system does are called processes, although their names vary depending on the operating system architecture (batch system or time-shared system).
Again by definition, a process is an executing (running) program. But, a program is not a process. Because the program is a file, or a passive folder located on the computer; Whereas a process is an active program (running, has been loaded into main memory to work).
A program can have two (or more) processes running, but they are considered two (or more) independent processes.
Furthermore, a process can be an execution environment for other lines of code. For example, Java programs need to be run in the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
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STATUS OF A PROCESS
New: newly created process.Running: process is being executed/run.Waiting: process waits for I/O or some signal.Ready: process is ready to be run by CPU.Terminated: process completes.
Note: The processes of a program need to load into main memory (specifically RAM) before the CPU can receive and execute the program’s requests.
Steps to switch the process of the process:
Processes are created by the program and placed on the “queue” (also known as the stack).Process is seen and executed by the CPU. When the process is too big, the CPU has to release it to execute another process. (you can learn about CPU processing algorithms) When the process is done. When the process is executing and requesting I/O or other signals. (for example, you need a word file to print out, the process will have to tell the CPU, the CPU sends a signal to the printer, the printer prints out and then reports to the CPU. During that time, to save time, this process will be transferred. after the I/O or signal has arrived, the process is put back into the “waiting queue”, waiting for execution.
PROCESS CONTROL BLOCK (PCB)
Each process when created will be stored information at a corresponding PCB.
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The information contained in the PCB:
Process state: 1 of the 5 states listed above Program counter: contains the address (or in C programming language, we call it a pointer / pointer) to the next instruction to be executed Register CPU: different types depending on computer architecture CPU timing information: priority of processes, specifying which process executes first Memory management information: depending on the memory system of each operating system State of I/O signals: list of I/Os used by processesInformation about CPU count, actual usage time, maximum CPU holding time process
Having mentioned the process, you should learn more about timing, our CPU’s ability to control those processes in the article about timers.