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Name and history of birth
The full name of UNESCO
English name: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.Vietnamese name: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
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UNESCO uses an image of the façade of the Parthenon as its symbol. The Parthenon is an ancient Greek cultural architecture, made of white marble, famous Doric style, located in the Ancropolis architectural complex on the Athenian hill, founded in 477 BC. The ancients ranked it as one of the seven cultural wonders of the world. This is a typical architectural work of human civilization, a symbol of ideal beauty, intellectual strength and creative ability of people – expressing content, thought and desire. sublime is very close to what UNESCO is reaching for.
History of the birth of UNESCO
Predecessor Organizations of UNESCO (refer)
– The International Committee of Intellectual Co-operation (CICI), based in Geneva from 1922-1946; – International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation (IICI), headquarters in Paris, 1925-19646;- International Bureau of Education (IBE), headquarters in Geneva, 1925-1968. From 1969 IBE became a part of UNESCO.
Important historical landmarks of UNESCO in the past 60 years
1948: UNESCO recommends that countries implement universally free and compulsory education for primary education.
1952: An intergovernmental conference was convened by UNESCO to adopt the International Copyright Convention. The Convention contributes to strengthening the ability to protect copyright for a number of countries that have not previously had the conditions to accede to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works signed since 1886.
1956: The Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO, accusing UNESCO of publishing a series of publications containing “internal interference” in South Africa in “racial issues”. In 1994 President Nelson Mandela came to power and South Africa returned to UNESCO.
1958: The inauguration of the UNESCO Headquarters building in Paris was designed by a group of architects Marcel Breuer (USA), Pier-Luigi Nervi (Italy) and Bernard Zehrfuss (France).
1960: Launch of Operation Nubia in Egypt to move the Great Temple at Abu Simbel to a safe location for preservation after Egypt built the Aswan Dam. Within 20 years of this campaign, 22 structures and monuments have been moved intact to the safe area. This is one of the largest works in a series of cultural heritage conservation campaigns launched by UNESCO, including campaigns Moenjodaro (Pakistan), Fez (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece).
1968: UNESCO organized the first Intergovernmental Conference aimed at addressing the relationship between environment and development, which is now called “sustainable development”. This conference led to the birth of UNESCO’s global program called “Man and the Biosphere”.
1972: An International Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted at UNESCO. The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the world’s first sites were included in the World Heritage List in 1988.
1974: Pope John Paul VI presents the John XXIII Peace Prize to UNESCO.
1975: The United Nations University was established in Tokyo under the auspices of the United Nations and UNESCO.
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1978: UNESCO adopts the Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. Subsequent reports on topics raised by the Director-General caused scandal, discredited UNESCO, and led to the dissolution of the scientific group studying racism.
1980: The first two volumes of UNESCO’s General History of Africa were published. This was followed by similar volumes on other regions, notably on the history of Central Asia and the Caribbean.
1984: The United States withdrew from UNESCO due to disagreements over management and other reasons. This was followed by the UK and Singapore’s withdrawal from UNESCO the following year, 1985. UNESCO’s budget fell dramatically.
1990: UNESCO organizes International Conference on “Education for All” in Jomtiem, Thailand. The conference launched an international movement to facilitate universal basic learning for children, young people and adults. Ten years later, a similar conference was held in Dakar, Senegal, called the International Forum on Education, to present to the countries the goals of basic education for all. obtained in 2015.
1992: Establishing a “Memory” for international programs in the field of preserving libraries of irreplaceable cultural products and preserving collections that are being archived. Now those objects that need to be protected also include audio, film and television products.
1997: UK back to UNESCO.
1998: The Declaration of Human Rights compiled by UNESCO and adopted in 1997 has been ratified by the United Nations.
1999: General Director Koichiro Matsuura carried out overall structural reform and implemented the policy of decentralizing UNESCO’s civil service apparatus and professional activities.
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2001: The UNESCO General Assembly adopted the International Declaration on Cultural Diversity.