What is temperament – Troubleinthepeace






Temperament, also known as temperament, is the most common feature of each human being, is the basic feature of the nervous system, creating certain appearances of the entire activity in each individual.

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In humans, the cerebral cortex links and regulates activity inside and outside the body, regulating the body’s relationships with its surroundings. The activity of the cerebral cortex in different people has its own characteristics. Because of those differences, each person has a unique temperament. You may have a hot temper but your temperament level can be either 1st or N level depending on these brain activities.

They manifest themselves in the dissimilarity of relationships between the magnitude, balance, and flexibility of the underlying neural processes. That attribute may be innate, it may be trained.

So what temperament are you? Based on the 4 types of activity of the nervous system, there are 4 types of temperament:

Temperament is hot-tempered (strong temperament)Flexible temperament (enthusiastic) Calm temperament (calm) Worried temperament (weak temperament)

In a person, there are always 4 types of temperament above and are always unstable, sometimes we find ourselves with one temperament and sometimes with another, so sometimes we find ourselves difficult to understand. However, there will be one “prominent” temperament, and it also determines a person’s “official” temperament or temperament.

In management activities, leaders need to understand the temperament of the people under them. This is very important. Because when the leader understands the temperament, he will use the subordinates more effectively. When leaders understand the temperaments of followers, they need to know the strengths and weaknesses of each temperament in order to promote their strengths and overcome their limitations. For each specific temperament type, leaders need to pay attention to the following aspects:

(1)Busy person

Physiologically, an active person has the following characteristics: Strong nervous system, high activity, strong inhibition, and strong excitability process. This type of person is strong, capable, has a high work capacity and operates on a large scale.


People with this temperament are very energetic, full of enthusiasm, easily and quickly angered. This type of person is passionate about work, has energy, can use his enthusiasm to attract others. But when he doesn’t get any benefits, it’s easy to become difficult and irritable.

Physiological basis

The temperamental person has the following characteristics: high inhibition, high excitement. Nervous pace is fast, but there is no balance between inhibition and excitement, low sensitivity, high reactivity, high activism, reactivity overdoes positivity, rigidity and extroversion , fast reaction rate, high emotional ease.

External expression of a person with a hot temper

Talk loudly, talk a lot, speak loudly, act forcefully, be irritable, or show your emotions outwardly, open-minded, impulsive, bold, proactive, very enthusiastic with people, but due to being popular hot, so it is easy to offend others. Realizing things very quickly. Regarding emotional issues, love and hate are clear, often living in favor of emotions, or letting emotions overwhelm reason. High adaptability to the environment.

For those with a lively temperament leaders need to know how to promote their qualities of enthusiasm, enthusiasm, passion for work, energy, high working ability, wide range of activities, ability to attract others, but also know the downside of people with this temperament is that when their personal interests are not met, they are easily irritable, become difficult.

This type of person is suitable for jobs that require a lot of communication such as trading, foreign affairs, advertising, marketing, movement activities, mass organizations, etc. Meticulous, careful as informatics, accounting, statistics…

(2) Flexible person


This type of person has a strong nervous system. Both excitation and inhibition are balanced. This type of person is flexible, dynamic, has a flexible mindset, is optimistic, loves life. This is a person who has the ability to work well, is highly effective when the work is attractive and interesting to them.

Flexible people quickly integrate with people, love life, and easily switch from one activity to another. People with this temperament do not like monotonous jobs and are often pious.

Physiological basis

High responsiveness and positivity, fast response rate, flexibility, high balance between inhibition and excitement, flexibility. The relationship between response and positivity is balanced, with flexibility, extroversion, and emotional lability.

External expression

People with a flexible temperament stand out with external expressions such as talkative and fast. Activity is also agile and vivacious. The relationship is fun and easy to approach, with diplomatic talent, so the relationship is very wide but not deep.

For those with a flexible temperament leaders need to know how to use their advantages such as: Dynamic, good work ability, sharp thinking, optimism, easy to integrate with people, easy to adapt to the change of working environment job…

These types of people are like enthusiastic people who can be assigned tasks such as trading, foreign affairs, advertising, marketing, movement activities, etc. They should not be assigned tasks such as research, experimentation. , informatics, statistics…

Especially to give them jobs that match their interests, jobs that they find attractive, not monotonous tasks should be assigned to them. It is necessary to limit in these people filial piety, achievement disease, formality and ostentatiousness.

(3) Calm person

The characteristic of this type of person is a strong nervous system, equal excitatory and inhibitory processes. This type of person is a quiet worker, always calm, patient and tenacious.


When they participate in a certain job, it takes time to prepare, but it is not possible to start working immediately. They are usually loyal to their friends, rarely changing their habits.

They live inactively and do not react strongly to the events of life. In their behavior they are calm, careful not to be distracted by little things. It is difficult for a calm person to change from one type of job to another, which Paul calls “Lifetime Laborers”. Many people with this temperament are passive people.

Physiological basis

There is a balanced excitatory and inhibitory nerve intensity but at a relative level (not as strong as the temperamental and dynamic) and inflexible.

External expression

The type of person who doesn’t talk much, says whatever he says. Slow behavior, not expressing emotions to the outside, a bit dry. Being difficult to approach, difficult to get to know, also difficult to know their mood. Their relationship is very narrow because they don’t like wide relationships. Therefore, it is difficult to adapt to the living environment.

For those with a calm temperament leaders need to know how to use their caution, composure, patience, high sense of responsibility. But leaders need to overcome their inactivity, slowness and perfectionism, calmness, and passivity.

For these people, they should not assign jobs that require much communication, require dynamism such as foreign affairs, advertising, etc., they should be assigned a stable and suitable job with their strengths, jobs that require careful and meticulous work such as working in laboratories, informatics, statistics, accounting, archiving, editing… For those with this temperament when assigning work, they should spend their time preparation time, should not change much about the work for them.

(4) Priority person


In this type of person, the nervous system is weak, it is difficult to get used to and adapt to the changes of the environment, weak endurance, and is easily fluctuating. According to Paul, for a person with a troubled temperament, every phenomenon of life is an inhibitory agent, sometimes he believes in nothing, does not hope for anything, he only sees things. dangerous or less auspicious things at work.

Worried people are often shy, lose their temper in new situations, in new encounters with strangers. They are people who do not like to communicate, living in favor of prolonged inner emotions. They are also diligent and extremely careful workers.

Physiological basis

High sensitivity, low reactivity, low positivity, lower reactivity than positivity, rigidity, introversion, slow reaction rate, high emotional lability.

External expression

Nervous response is slow, discreet, can’t stand shock, quiet, voice is soft and weak. Acting without boldness, very timid, timid. Perception is slow, sure, has its own gift. Don’t like crowds, don’t like noise. Introspective introspection, do not like wide relationships. Very attentive, less offending others.

For those with a preeminent temperament leaders need to know how to use the diligence and carefulness of this type of person and assign them jobs that are suitable for the above qualities. This type of temperament has many limitations that leaders need to understand such as: low ability to adapt to changes of work and environment, low tolerance, poor communication ability due to shyness or shyness. , easily swayed and easily lost his temper, lack of confidence in himself

For these people, it is difficult to assign important, complex tasks that require high efforts. In particular, with them, leaders need to be skillful in their behavior, especially when commenting and evaluating. An American manager recounted that, when he went down to inspect the factory and saw an employee doing not very well, he immediately criticized him in front of a crowd of workers. Unfortunately, this worker is of the worried type that he can’t stand the criticism and stops working. This manager learned from experience, only confided in him, from then on, this worker continued to work and work much better.

The temperament and personality are the same or different. However, temperament is different from nature – personality. Temperament does not help distinguish good from bad or classify good and evil.

A person’s outstanding temperament is an almost unchangeable attribute. However, a person’s personality is different, it can be changed or it can be trained. In particular, personality is greatly influenced by the impact of the external living environment.

Temperament can be masked by personality (such as a person with weak temperament). But trained in the military environment still has a tough, strong personality. However, there are times when they will show their weak-side nature, because in reality they are still just people with a worried temperament.

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For a leader who should not be questioned, which temperament is best? Temperament does not determine a person’s social morality. It is important for leaders to know how to use the advantages and overcome the limitations of each type of temperament of the people under them in using them. To do this, it requires leaders to be attentive, interested and listens to those being led.

The bureaucratic and imperative style of management will make the leader unable to understand and use the temperaments of followers in the implementation of organizational goals.

It can be said that understanding and paying attention to the temperament of collective members in the process of organizing collective activities and education is a requirement for those doing management work.


Not everyone is born with the qualities of a good leader and not all good leaders have natural leadership qualities. Skills are something that can be learned and accumulated.

According to George Anders, a famous economic reporter in the US about the seven secrets and experiences of talented leaders.

first.Realize the mission message:Anyone can write an organization’s mission message with beautiful, attractive words, However, the key is how you can make others believe that you will transform those values. into specific action. What others learn from your daily decision-making is far more meaningful than what you put into your words.

An example case: Jeff Bezos, founder and president of Amazon.com, a leading online supermarket in the world, thinks Amazon is the most customer-centric company in the world, a message that sounds good. looks good but what is the real meaning of it? Take a moment to follow the president of Amazon and you’ll notice that he removes exaggerated advertisements that mislead customers. For mid-level meetings, he required a person in the sole role of protecting the client to oppose actions contrary to the client’s interests. As Amazon reorganized its departments, each group was tweaked in a way to better serve customers.

In the same spirit, bring your core values ​​to the workplace every day. Appreciate the actions of others that bring the values ​​you desire, and bring those principles into the mindset of others by referring to core values ​​when making decisions.

2.Ask smart questions.In his book “To Sell Is Human,” author Daniel H. Pink presents studies that show that when you want to persuade someone, asking questions can be more effective than giving announcements because then you can have a stronger impact on the hearts and minds of the respondents. You get the person thinking about the answer and all the steps needed to get it. Less dogmatic, you can let your team members build plans they believe in, rather than tying them up with unproductive announcements until you give them the next command. .

While gathering information to write my most recent book “The Rare Find,” I was impressed with the way David Evans, former dean of the University of Utah’s Department of Computer Science, created a piece of research. Great research from its graduates by asking simple but focused questions towards revolutionary improvement. He inspired the engineers who would later make Pixar, Adobe, and Netscape. Often this can be done simply by focusing on the big goal in front of you and asking, “How will you accomplish it?”

3.Take the time to get to know the other person.Once you are in the senior leadership position of a company, you will meet a lot of outside people that you hardly know but whose support plays a big role in the success of your company. If you don’t know what your partner really wants, you can’t communicate effectively with them. Don’t think that only the underdogs in the room need to listen carefully. When you listen carefully, you gain the trust of others and this is very important for other things you want to achieve. The business world has an aphorism: “Take advantage of that hidden insight.”

4.Create an enabling environment to get things done.In an organization, there is a big gap between projects that are about to be completed and those that are in a state of stagnation. If you’re looking for results, make sure employees and managers are always aware of your top priorities. Help them set immediate goals, help remove barriers, check the work being done. As a leader, manager, you need to show the employees the urgency and importance of the work. Consider how many of the top priorities your organization can successfully deliver. Winning two big campaigns a year is better than being stuck in 20 jobs. I have seen many ambitious but unfocused organizations inundated with a mountain of highly controversial programs internally, with the unintended consequence of not being able to get the job done on time, change. constant direction and competition for resources. The higher you are in an organization, the more you need to communicate key objectives clearly and succinctly.

Tim Boyle, president of Columbia Sportwear, is good at solving problems. He focuses his business on three basic things: creativity, improved design, and compelling marketing. Focus on each idea and the details surrounding it. Those three core things help ensure that Columbia’s 4000 employees are on track.

5.Conveying perspective through stories. When you are at the top of an organization, you seem more isolated from everyone else. When you don’t have enough time to meet the people you want to influence, one of the ways you can get people who barely know you but still get a feel for your personality is: share stories.

Perhaps no one has done this better than the 82-year-old chairman of Berkshire Hathaway: Warrant Buffett. His group has $143 billion in annual revenue, with profits ranging from insurance to energy, furniture and chocolate. When you read Buffett’s annual letter to shareholders, you can sense his wise and intellectual judgments. Countless investors and managers who have never met him feel like they have met and loved him.

6.Be interested in what you don’t know.If you have good employees, you won’t know the details as well as they do. With work, you need to constantly learn. You have strengths that others don’t, especially in terms of experience, broad perspective, and judgment. When you’re making important decisions, create open dialogues where others can share their views with you to help build your knowledge base.

7.Let the employees feel they are working for the winner.One of the biggest secrets of leadership is to raise the morale of the business itself so that it can create better activity and creativity. Some executives increase employee benefits. Others praise good deeds in the hope of even better jobs in the future. Some still scold the lazy employees and fire the least productive. Any of the methods above can work, and yet I’ve seen executives do all three without achieving their goals.

Remarkable is the case of John Young, who served as chairman of Hewlett Packard for many years during the company’s heyday. We talked after he retired, and he said that the thing that affects entrepreneurship the most is employees’ confidence that they are working for the best companies in their field. From there, you will have the commitment of employees that cash and perks alone cannot buy.

All six of the other techniques in the article work towards this last priority. If you convey a clear mission, ask the right questions, set the right priorities, etc., you are creating the charisma of a leader – what is needed most in great leadership communication.


The secret to creating a leader temperament: Realize the mission message, ask smart questions, take the time to learn about others, create a favorable environment to get the job done, convey the Score through stories, take an interest in the unknown, and let employees feel like you’re working for a winner.

Not everyone is born with the qualities of a leader and not all good leaders have natural leadership qualities. Skills are something that can be learned and accumulated. If you want to strive to be a leader, you should constantly acquire the necessary skills. As for those who are already a leader and manager, they should continue to improve themselves to be more successful on their career path.

See also: What is Preceding – Meaning of the word Preceding

A good leadership style is the brainchild of the leader, reflected in the skillful use of different leadership styles in different situations. Understanding Vietnamese culture and Vietnamese people’s way of life is essential for a leader in the country to be able to behave appropriately in the Vietnamese environment.


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